The United States invaded Afghanistan after the attacks of 9/11 to fight the Global War on Terror against al Qaeda and to abolish the Taliban regime. This created high hopes of change for a peaceful future in the Afghan society, but the expectations stayed unfulfilled: The U.S.-led counterinsurgency Operation Enduring Freedom ignored the structure of tribal networks of the Pashtuns, their historical development and their Pashtunwali code, which led to a dramatic comeback of the revitalized Taliban. A lot of wrong political decisions and the unwillingness, to take responsibility for the nation-building process in Afghanistan affected the dynamics of the virulent insurgency. Especially poor Pashtun tribes in rural, underdeveloped areas in southern and eastern Afghanistan suffer from the consequences of state failure after the invasion, which pushed a revival of the Islamic extremists. The masterthesis „Die Hydra der Taliban. Auswirkungen der US-geleiteten Intervention Operation Enduring Freedom auf paschtunische Netzwerke in Afghanistan“ deals with the controversial war in Afghanistan, which was provoked by the United Stated. The comeback of the Taliban is linked with this military operation particularly between the years 2002 and 2007 and claryfies why the mission failed.