The current research of descriptive type and descriptive qualitative design intends to know whether there are environmental refugees or internally displaced people due to illegal gold mining in the Madre de Dios region in Peru. A case study with a holistic, theory testing, single case and prospective design was developed. 14 interviews were made with different specialists related to this illegal activity. The kind of interview used was the expert interview. Likewise, a research trip was made to Madre de Dios to contrast the obtained information and to observe the dynamic of the local population. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed. According to the answers of the specialists and to the information from the official and public Peruvian institutions collected, it has been concluded that there are no environmental refugees or internally displaced people due to illegal gold mining in Madre de Dios. Instead of people leaving this Amazon region, people are coming to Madre de Dios to enroll in this mining activity. Two of the biggest problems to combat the illegal gold mining are the high international price of gold and the corruption at the state level.