This thesis is dedicated to method development of super-resolution far-field lithography for 3D polymer structuring. Multiphoton polymerization (MPP) and stimulated emission depletion (STED) lithography were used to create structures with the highest resolution achievable, structures with additional chemical functionality and to develop a new platform for protein assays. MPP enables the fabrication of polymeric structures in complex 3D geometries, with a wide range of chemical and physical functionality. However, the resolution of MPP is limited by diffraction. STED controls the spatial distribution of excited photoinitiators, thereby confining the polymerization volume. Hence, combining MPP with STED improves the resolution beyond the diffraction limit. Record resolutions of 120 nm in the lateral direction and 275 nm in the axial direction were achieved by STED lithography. Single features with 55 nm width were demonstrated. MPP enables fabrication of composite structures with different chemical functionality. To combine the functional versatility of MPP with the superior resolution of STED, new functional photoresists were employed. Acrylate monomers with additional carboxyl- or thiol groups were used to write reactive nano-structures with 60 nm feature size. Two- and three-dimensional composite structures were written and orthogonally functionalized with different fluorophores. An axial resolution of 550 nm between differently functionalized layers was achieved. The carboxyl-photoresist enables fabrication of structures with improved protein adhesiveness. A 3D composite platform was fabricated to immobilize functional capture proteins onto binding sites, which were elevated from the substrate surface. Molecular recognition of fluorescently labeled proteins was shown on those binding sites. The first 3D protein immunoassay for confocal readout was demonstrated, with signal to noise ratios exeeding 10.