Due to the financial crisis in 2008, unemployment has not only become a major problem in Europe in recent years, but also long-term unemployment. As varied as the impacts were in the EU countries after the crisis, the measures taken by the countries against long-term unemployment are also very different. This depends in part on which welfare state types they belong to. For this reason, Austria (Conservative type), Sweden (Social Democratic type) and Spain (Mediterranean type) were chosen for this work. Since the European Union also supports countries in labour market policy, their measures against long-term unemployment are also explained. In order to answer the questions, the definitions of "unemployment" and "long-term unemployment" are first described. Since the national and international concepts are measured dissimilar, a clear differentiation is made. The next two chapters analyse the current data and facts of the target groups of Austrian and European long-term unemployment. In addition to the developments from 2005 to 2015, the various causes are explained on their part. The main part of the work is about the description of the actions against long-term unemployment of all selected countries including the European Union. Moreover, the different long-term unemployed developments and target groups of Spain and Sweden are analysed. The conclusion involves a comparison of all results from the countries and a bottom line or rather outlook, in which essential points are once again summarized and critically illuminated.