Laser-ultrasonic testing is an advanced measurement technique in material characterization. One specific application of this technique is the detection of temperature-dependent changes in the microstructure of metallic samples. During such a measurement series, usually the detected ultrasound signals are just captured, but not analyzed. As it is beneficial if the analysis results are already available during the measurements, in this thesis a real-time processing system for the ultrasound signals was developed. The development board Red Pitaya was used for the signal capturing and most parts of the data processing. Additionally, a PC application with a graphical user interface was implemented for remote-controlling the board and visualizing the results in real-time. The proper functioning of the system was ensured during the implementation by accompanying simulations and tests in the real measurement environment. These experiments showed that the performance requirements for real-time processing were fulfilled.