Economic transition in the CEE (Central and Eastern Europe) region has taken place since the early 1990s against a background of rapid IT-driven technological change. Emergence of a more internationally competitive business environment for CEE SMEs, (Small and medium sized enterprises) entails competitive disadvantages whereby controlling entrepreneurs may not possess sufficient globally-oriented managerial skills. Extensive outward migration since EU accession of former Communist countries may theoretically instigate acquisition of such skills to enhance local entrepreneurial activity should migrants return home. The first research phase of this thesis therefore consists of a systematic literature review of antecedental factors of SME internationalisation in the CEE region, co- published by this author in the Journal of Eastern European Management Studies in 2015 . This entailed examination of learning patterns and human capital characteristics of return migrant entrepreneurs which may influence SME development in CEE countries. Identified research gaps suggested that while enhanced SME internationalisation is desirable in policy terms, the current socio-economic transitional situation of the region is not compatible with a highly competitive global business environment. The subsequent qualitative research phase therefore consisted of a process-oriented case study approach to compare the experience of three IT sector entrepreneurs in Hungary who previously worked and studied abroad. Analysis considered social capital acquisition abroad and international human capital transfer which may influence SME development in the CEE region. This study was also co-published by this author in the Review of Managerial Science in 2015 . ^^Results were also used as a partial basis for the final research phase, whereby a model was developed from which data acquired in Hungary and Slovenia was empirically tested, with organisational human capital and learning processes considered as moderating constructs. By use of split sample regression analysis both were found to slightly influence SME internationalisation. While the model has not provided a major contribution to SME internationalisation research, this study acts as a basis for further longitudinal research in the CEE region. Furthermore, in a context of global competitiveness, policy implications are also derived for more internationally focused entrepreneurship and final outcomes also present implications for institutional level training policy directed at SMEs in the CEE region.