The aim of this thesis is to provide a general perspective on the effects of globalization on sustainable development (SD) in our current world. Globalization has various aspects, which have varying effects on SD (Martell, 2010, p. 12; Held et al., 1999, p. 15). Therefore, three aspects of globalization (economic, environmental, and cultural & social) will be assessed in relation to SD in order to analyze the current environment (Keohane & Nye, 2007, p. 5). Globalization has led to increased interdependence amongst nations and has brought about much benefit and opportunity to many people in many parts of the world (UN, 2018). Despite that, there still remains a large part of humanity which has not been able to experience the benefits of globalization, as extreme poverty and inequality still remain a reality for some (Stiglitz, 2017, p. 16; UN, 2018). Hence a major aspect of SD has been devoted to fairly distributing the benefits of globalization in order to eradicate the worlds gravest challenges (UN, 2018). These efforts have not gone unnoticed, as there has been much change and progress in the field of SD over the past 5 years (Lozano et al., 2015, p. 14; Ertrugul et al., 2016, p. 553; Shaikh et al., 2016). In order to assess the development in the academic literature, a systematic literature review has been conducted using academic articles published between January 2013-January 2018. The following new frameworks and concepts have been proposed throughout the recent academic literature: Broman & Roberts (2015) FSSD Framework, Holden et al.s (2017) renewed SDG framework, Voegltin & Scherers (2017) concept of RI, Herrschels (2013) concept of Smart (New) City Regionalism, Stiglitzs (2017) Policy Program, Schmitz & Mitchels (2016) RBA for NGOs, and Huckle & Wals (2015) GESC. Additionally, the following topics were popular throughout literature and have been critically assessed: transparency in global governance, citizen participation in global governance, transnational business governance and VSSs, the SDGs, income inequality and ESD. Based on the findings of the systematic literature review, it has been concluded that the effects of globalization on SD are both positive and negative. However, the positive effects present an optimistic outlook for the future of the SD agenda. Overall, the results showed that there has been significant progress made in the global coordination and cooperation of SD initiatives. Based on the analysis the three main challenges facing globalization and SD are: (1) effective global governance and the coordination of policies; (2) gaining societal support of SD; (3) gaining business support of SD.