The phenomena of digitization and globalization are having profound effects on the ways companies create value. While it used to be widely accepted in academia that companies followed value chain strategies, where a linear sequence of activities ultimately resulted in some final output i.e. goods or services, more recent studies have shown that this assumption is no longer always valid. Instead, companies in some industries are nowadays organising their value-creation efforts within a so-called business ecosystem. Using the metaphor of the biological ecosystem to refer to business networks allows for a perspective that considers the high levels of interconnectedness, interdependence, and coopetition between firms that characterise the way customer value is increasingly created. Particularly in the past five and a half years, management research has focussed on business ecosystem performance, business ecosystem patterns, the way business ecosystems are organised internally, their differentiation from knowledge ecosystems and the performance of individual ecosystem participants.